History and Wars


Agadir Incident in 1911
During the first decade of the twentieth century, France was extending her empire in North Africa, particularly Morocco and the surrounding areas. Germany was also extending her territory in the region and wanted her share of what was believed to be on offer. This included lucrative mining concessions in southern Morocco as well as other commercial and economic interests.

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Operation Market Garden in 1944
Operation Market Garden was an attempt to establish a bridgehead across the river Rhine by the dropping of the 82nd and 101st US and 1st British Airborne divisions and the advance of the British 30th Corps, had been launched on 17 September 1944.

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The Cinque Ports from 1155
The Cinque Ports were established by a Royal Charter in 1155 by Edward the Confessor to maintain ships and defences for the Crown in case of attack and war. When necessary the Cinque Ports had to provide a certain number of war and transport ships with crews ready for action, and in return they received many privileges and benefits from the Crown.

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Marston Moor 1644

English Civil War 1642-1651
Roughly, the Parliamentary side (Roundheads) consisted of the middle-class traders; the kings of the nobility and the peasants. The Irish Catholics and Scottish Presbyterians were possible allies of either side. Parliament was supported by the country roughly east of a line from Hull to Plymouth and most of the large towns where trade was carried on.

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El Alamein, Egypt

Battle of El Alamein 1942
By July, 1942, after almost continuous campaigning since the end of 1940, the British forces in North Africa had been forced back to El Alamein in northern Matrouh, Egypt, only sixty miles from Alexandria and 150 miles west of Cairo. Rommel's plan was to attack the British forces and Allies in the south as he had done so before.

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King Charles I

King Charles I and Parliament
He came to the throne with the treasury empty and a war with Spain in progress. To get money it was necessary to come to an agreement with Parliament, but though he called three in four years he quarrelled with and dissolved each one in turn. In 1629 he decided to govern without Parliament altogether.

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